XVI PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION.
advocacy of chemical analyses, etc., in mixing metal instead of judging pig iron by the appearance of its fracture. One class of castings (ingot moulds) made by the firm of which the author is the manager, is subjected to the most rigid tests, when in use, that castings can be put to. In making these castings, an •excellent opportunity is afforded to test the utility of working by chemical analyses. There are about half a dozen ingot mould makers in the United States and all of them will agree with the author when he asserts that being guided by chemical analyses instead of pig iron fractures has increased the efficiency of ingot mould service over fifty per cent. Manufacturers of other lines of castings can find similar and other benefits by the adoption of chemistry and following the teachings of this work. We have other works and writings showing effects of the carbons, silicon, sulphur, manganese, phosphorus, etc., in changing the-character •of iron, but they fail in not setting forth essentials that must be followed in order to make chemistry a success in founding or insure the greatest certainty and economy in obtaining desired mixtures of iron. The work has been said to be too large; but not until certain impractical theories and practices have been entirely set aside can it be abridged or parts cut out.
About one month after the issue of the third edition of this work Mr. W. J. Keep brought out a book entitled " Cast Iron," published by John Wiley & Sons, New York. On page 129 of this work he refers to a report made by a committee of the Western Foundrymen's Association, in which preference was given to square bars cast flat instead of round bars cast on end, which had fluidity strips and chill attached to them. Thisanuary, 1902.eir abbrt*via!i«'ir» or symbols as generally writtrn by «, Is^ini'j^, Thf tables following arc copied from Mes.srs. ("rc-uirr andthods of Casting and Compilation <>i" Result;1, of Amer-